Accounting concept

Accounting concept

To support the application of the “true and fair view”, accounting has adopted retain concepts and conventions which help to ensure that accounting information is presented accurately and consistently. Accounting Period Concept Also known as Time Period where business operation can be divided into specific period of time such as a month, a quarter or a year (accounting period) Final accounts are prepared at the end of the accounting period ii one year. Internal accounts can be prepared monthly, quarterly or half yearly. Accounting Conventions The most commonly encountered convention is the ‘historical cost convention”.

This requires transactions to be recorded at the price ruling at he time, and for assets to be valued at their original cost. Under the “historical cost convention”, therefore, no account is taken of changing prices in the economy. Business should report its activities or economic events at their actual cost. For example, fixed assets are recorded at their cost in accounts except for land which can be revalued due to application. Www. Civic. Com The other conventions you will encounter in a set of accounts can be summarizes as follows: Money Also known as Monetary unit.

Transactions related to the business, and measurement having money value are recorded in the books of accounts. Events or concept orientations which cannot be expressed in term of money do not find a place in the books of accounts. Items that are not accounted for (unless someone is prepared to pay something for them) include things like workforce skill, morale, market leadership, brand recognition, quality of management etc. Separate Entity This convention seeks to ensure that private transactions and matters relating to the owners of a business are segregated from transactions that relate to the business.

Also known as Accounting Entity convention . Thus, business records should be separated and distinct from personal records Of business owner. Realization With this convention, accounts recognize transactions (and any profits arising from them) at the point of sale or transfer of legal ownership – rather than just when cash actually changes hands. For example, a company that makes a sale to a customer can recognize that sale when the transaction is legal – at the point of contract. The actual payment due from the customer may not arise until several weeks (or months) later – if the customer has been granted some credit terms.

Materiality An important convention. As we can see from the application of accounting standards and accounting policies, the preparation of accounts involves a gig degree of judgment. Where decisions are required about the appropriateness of a particular accounting judgment, the “materiality” convention suggests that this should only be an issue if the judgment is “significant” or “material” to a user of the accounts. The concept of “materiality” is an important issue for auditors of financial accounts. 2 Dual Aspect Concept: Double entry system. For every debit, there is a credit entry of an equal amount.

Substance Over Form: Real substance takes over legal form namely we consider the economic or accounting point of view rather than the legal point of view in recording transactions. Objectivity and Subjectivity: Objectivity is following rules of the mind gusty and based on objective evidence and subjectivity is to follow ones own rules and methods Accounting Concepts Four important accounting concepts underpin the preparation of any set of accounts: Going Concern Accountants assume, unless there is evidence to the contrary, that a company is not going broke. This has important implications for the valuation of assets and liabilities.

The business will follow accounting concepts and methods on the assumption that business will continue its operation to the foreseeable future or for an indefinite period of time. Consistency Transactions and valuation methods are treated the same way from year to year, or period to period. Users of accounts can, therefore, make more meaningful comparisons of financial performance from year to year. According to this convention, accounting practices should remain unchanged from one period to another. For example, if depreciation is charged on fixed assets according to a particular method, it should be done year after year.

Where accounting policies are changed, companies are required to disclose this fact and explain the impact of any change. 3 win. Civic. Com Prudence/Consent/autism Profits are not recognized until a sale has been employed. In addition, Concept a cautious view is taken for future problems and costs of the business They are “provided for” in the accounts” as soon as their is a reasonable chance that such costs will be incurred in the future. Take into account unrealized losses, not unrealized profit/gains. Assets should not be over-valued, liabilities under-valued.

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